Relevance of Calcium and Vitamin D in Supporting Bone Health: An Expert Panel Recommendation in Indonesia (2023)

Relevance of Calcium and Vitamin D in Supporting Bone Health: An Expert Panel Recommendation in Indonesia

International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 9, Issue 2, March 2020, Pages: 54-62
Received: Aug. 22, 2019; Accepted: Apr. 23, 2020; Published: May 14, 2020

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Saptawati Bardosono, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia/ Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Andon Hestiantoro, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Indonesia/ Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Andri Maruli Tua Lubis, Department of Orthopaedic Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia / Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Siti Setiati, Department of Internal Medicine Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia / Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Ani Retno Prijanti, Department Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

Purwantyastuti, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia / Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Luciana Sutanto, Department of Nutrition, Universitas Kristen Kr, Jakarta, Indonesia

Maria Regina Rachmawati, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gunadarma / Pasar Minggu Municipal Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Sheryl Tan, Medical & Clinical Development, Bayer Consumer Care, Singapore

Osteoporosis is a bone health related condition that weakens the bones, making individuals fragile and prone to breaks. Nutrients such as calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone health. Calcium helps in building and maintaining bone mass while vitamin D aids in the absorption and utilization of calcium. According to WHO, 28.8% men and 32.3% women in Indonesia have osteoporosis, and this is inspite of the international recommendations for the daily intake of calcium and vitamin D intake. This could be attributed to low community awareness on how to prevent and care for osteoporosis. Several high-risk population groups have been identified such as those with osteopenia, undergoing rehabilitation and pregnancy/lactation periods. Therefore, in this review, an expert panel comprising of specialties of dietetics, rehabilitation medicine, orthopaedic, obstetrics & gynaecology, pharmacology, and geriatrics, convened to provide an evidence-based guidance on the prevention and care for osteoporosis. The recommendations are as follows: (i) It is important to know that calcium and vitamin D work synergistically to maintain bone health. (ii) The intake of calcium and vitamin D must start early. (iii) We should be aware that our diet and lifestyle today does not allow us to meet the recommended daily intake of calcium and vitamin D required for optimal bone health. (iv) Supplementation can compensate for the deficits in both calcium and vitamin D intake, thereby strengthening bone health. This study could guide the primary health care team, who plays a critical role in community care, to encourage early bone health awareness and care in Indonesia.

Saptawati Bardosono, Andon Hestiantoro, Andri Maruli Tua Lubis, Siti Setiati, Ani Retno Prijanti, Purwantyastuti, Luciana Sutanto, Maria Regina Rachmawati, Sheryl Tan. Relevance of Calcium and Vitamin D in Supporting Bone Health: An Expert Panel Recommendation in Indonesia, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Volume 9, Issue 2, March 2020 , pp. 54-62. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20200902.13

Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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